The working principle and application of LED fluorescent lamp
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The working principle and application of LED fluorescent lamp

LED fluorescent lamp, commonly known as straight tube lamp, is a substitute for traditional fluorescent tube, which is embodied in two aspects of energy saving and environmental protection. The size and installation method is the same as that of traditional fluorescent lamps, but the light-emitting principle is to use LED semiconductor chips to emit light. According to the shell material, it is divided into two categories, one is glass, the other is aluminum and PC. The luminous efficiency is 90lm/W~200lm/W.

Principle of luminescence


The terminal voltage of the PN junction constitutes a certain potential barrier. When a forward bias voltage is applied, the potential barrier drops, and the majority carriers in the P and N regions diffuse to each other. Since the mobility of electrons is much greater than that of holes, a large number of electrons will diffuse to the P region, which constitutes the injection of minority carriers in the P region. These electrons recombine with the holes in the valence band, and the energy obtained during the recombination is released in the form of light energy. This is the principle of PN junction light emission.

Structural features and parameters

Composition
1. The LED fluorescent lamp is composed of multiple ultra-bright and low-power LEDs, a PC cover with high light permeability, heat dissipation aluminum parts and a power supply.
2. The light source used in the LED fluorescent lamp has two models: straw hat head and SMD lamp beads.
Among them, the commonly used SMD lamp beads are 3528, 5050, 1W high power, etc.
Exterior
1) Transparent PC shell, high light transmission performance, you can see the lamp beads inside;
2) The semi-transparent frosted shell makes the light softer.
4. The LED fluorescent lamp has a built-in power supply, and the working voltage is a wide voltage, which can be used from 85V to 265V.
5. LED fluorescent lamps can be made into red, yellow, blue, green, white and warm white colors.
Features
LED fluorescent lamps are characterized by high quality, durability, and energy saving. They have a large projection angle adjustment range. The brightness of 18W is equivalent to that of ordinary 40W fluorescent lamps. It is resistant to high temperature, moisture, water, and leakage. The operating voltage is: 110V, 220V optional, and the outer cover can be made of glass or PC. The lamp holder is the same as an ordinary fluorescent lamp.
The LED fluorescent lamp adopts the latest LED light source technology and digital appearance design, which can save more than 70% of electricity. The intensity of 12W LED fluorescent lamp is equivalent to that of 40W fluorescent tube. The life of LED fluorescent lamp is more than 10 times that of ordinary fluorescent tube. Replace lamps, ballasts, and starters frequently. The green and environmentally friendly semiconductor electric light source has soft light and pure spectrum, which is beneficial to the user's vision protection and physical health. The 6000K cold light source gives people a visually cool feeling, and the humanized illuminance difference design helps to concentrate and improve efficiency.
1. Strong applicability, improved adaptability and reliability in various harsh indoor and outdoor environments
2. Rich colors: composed of three primary colors (red, green, and blue) display unit cabinets, enabling the electronic screen to display dynamic images with rich colors, high saturation, high resolution, and high display frequency
3. High brightness: Ultra-high brightness LED is used, and it is still clearly visible at long distances under strong sunlight
4. Good effect: using nonlinear correction technology, the image is clearer, and the sense of hierarchy is stronger
5. Strong reliability: using static scanning technology and modular design technology, higher reliability and stability
6. Diversified display modes: support multiple display modes
Disadvantage
The price is expensive. There is still a big gap between the luminous efficiency that can be universally achieved and the theoretical luminous efficiency. There is still a big gap between the achievable life and the theoretical life. There is still a certain amount of heat, and the light decay can be greatly reduced.
Advantage
1. Environmental protection lamps, protect the earth
2. Efficient conversion, reduce heat generation
3. Quiet and comfortable, no noise
4. Soft light, protect eyes
5. No UV, no mosquitoes
6. The voltage is adjustable from 80V to 245V
7. Save energy and have a longer life
8.Sturdy and reliable, long-term use.
9. Compared with ordinary fluorescent lamps, LED fluorescent lamps need no ballast, no starter, and no flicker.
10 Maintenance-free, frequent switching will not cause any damage.
11. Safe and stable quality, can withstand 4kv high voltage, low heat dissipation, and can work at low temperature -30℃ and high temperature 55℃.
12. Good vibration resistance and easy to transport.
13. Energy saving, long life, good applicability, due to the small size of a single LED, it can be made into any shape, short response time, environmentally friendly, no harmful metals, easy to recycle waste, brilliant colors, pure luminous colors, and spectral range It is narrow and can be mixed into colorful or white light through the three primary colors of red, green and blue.
Luminous efficiency
It is generally called the external quantum efficiency of the component, which is the product of the internal quantum efficiency of the component and the extraction efficiency of the component. The so-called internal quantum efficiency of the component is actually the electro-optical conversion efficiency of the component itself, which is mainly related to the characteristics of the component itself (such as the energy band, defects, and impurities of the component material), the component's barrier crystal composition and structure. The extraction efficiency of a component refers to the number of photons generated inside the component that can actually be measured outside the component after the absorption, refraction, and reflection of the component itself. Therefore, factors related to extraction efficiency include the absorption of the component material itself, the geometric structure of the component, the refractive index difference of the component and the packaging material, and the scattering characteristics of the component structure. The product of the internal quantum efficiency of the component and the extraction efficiency of the component is the luminous effect of the entire component, that is, the external quantum efficiency of the component. Early component development focused on improving its internal quantum efficiency. The main method was to improve the quality of the barrier crystal and change the structure of the barrier crystal to make it difficult to convert electrical energy into heat, thereby indirectly increasing the luminous efficiency of the LED, so as to obtain a theor of about 70% Internal quantum efficiency, but such internal quantum efficiency is almost close to the theoretical limit. Under such conditions, it is impossible to increase the total light quantity of the module by simply improving the internal quantum efficiency of the module. Therefore, improving the extraction efficiency of the module has become an important research topic. The main methods are: changing the shape of the crystal grain-TIP structure, surface roughening technology.